Child Safety Information and Resources 2019 22-17-07


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21. Unnikrishnan, Hiran. Child labour rampant in seafood units: police. The Hindu. September 1, 2016.

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12. Nandy, Debasish. Child Rights Situation Analysis: Children of Families Engaged in Sugarcane Farming in Maharashtra. SSRN Electronic Journal (June 2012).

25. Theuws, Martje and Pauline Overeem. Flawed Fabrics: The abuse of girls and women workers in the South Indian textile industry. SOMO. October 2014.

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However, despite evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time in spinning mills, garment production, carpet making, and domestic work, not all children under age 18 are prohibited from working in occupations related to these sectors. (107; 28; 23; 32; 62)

132. The Times of India. 107 child labourers rescued from Kota division. May 21, 2017.

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135. The Hindu. 151 children, including 13 girls, rescued under ‘Operation Muskan’. July 19, 2017.

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11. Bhasin, Sukhmeet. Women, children forced to transplant paddy owing to labour shortage. The Tribune. June 25, 2015.

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5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

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98. UN General Assembly Security Council. Children and Armed Conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. April 20, 2016: A/70/836–S/2016/360.

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96. Backhaus, Anne. Daughters for Sale: India's Child Slavery Scourge. Spiegel Online. September 20, 2013.

15. Oxford Policy Management, and Glocal Research Services. Summative Evaluation of UNICEF India's Cotton Corridors Project: 'Preventing Exploitation and Protecting Children's Rights in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.' UNICEF. July 13, 2016.

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91. The Times of India. Child trafficking racket busted, 67 children rescued. May 3, 2016.

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64. Committed Action for Relief and Education and Child Rights and You. Developing a new perspective on Child Labour: Exploring the aftermath of Mumbai raids conducted from 2008 onwards. June 2014.

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) collects law enforcement data from state governments regarding cases involving the Child Labor Act, Indian Penal Code articles related to human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the Immoral Trafficking Act. (131) However, NCRB data does not provide comprehensive national totals for bonded labor or child labor offenses because not all states report these data. (131) In 2016, the most recent year for which NCRB published statistical data, state governments investigated 402 cases (including pending cases from the previous year) under the Child Labor Act, filed charges in and sent 139 cases to trial, and achieved convictions in 8 cases. (131) For crimes involving human trafficking offenses under the Indian Penal Code, state governments investigated 429 cases, filed charges in and sent 202 cases to trial, and achieved convictions in 4 cases. In addition, there were 5,248 cases investigated, 2,003 cases charged and sent for prosecution, and 37 cases convicted for crimes involving the commercial sexual exploitation of children under the India Penal Codes and the Immoral Trafficking Act. (131) However, NCRB data does not indicate whether offenders were investigated, charged, prosecuted, and convicted for multiple criminal offenses, preventing aggregate numbers from being provided in Table 7. (131) While the NCRB did not publish data on the punishments prescribed or enforced in 2016 for child labor-related convictions, NGO and news sources indicate that punishments were carried out in 2016 and 2017. (137; 65)

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