Child Safety Laws In India
Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking are more likely to be children from marginalized groups, such as low-caste Hindus, members of tribal communities, and religious minorities. (75) Children from marginalized groups also face barriers to accessing education. These children are sometimes subjected to discrimination and harassment from their teachers. (102; 103; 104)
34. Shafi, Showkat. Indian town where glass-making is a household craft. Al Jazeera. February 13, 2015. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/inpictures/2015/02/indian-town-glass-making-household-craft-150209200924438.html.
171. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (no. 29) India (ratification: 1954) Published: 2016. Accessed November 11, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3255918.
123. Sathish, G.T. Abolished 39 years ago, bonded labour still exists in State. The Hindu. October 24, 2014. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/abolished-39-years-ago-bonded-labour-still-exists-in-state/article6530866.ece.
65. Srivastava, Roli. Crackdown and vigilance drive down number of child workers in Mumbai. Reuters. January 24, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-childlabour/crackdown-and-vigilance-drive-down-number-of-child-workers-in-mumbai-idUSKBN1581W8.
In addition, in 2016, there were 187 cases investigated, 103 cases charged and sent to trial, and 3 cases convicted involving the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act in 2016; however, these data were not disaggregated between adults and children and the punishments for offenders are unknown. (131) The Government of India also identified and removed 2,950 children from forced labor, 236 from commercial sexual exploitation, and 115 from domestic servitude in 2016. (138)
67. Mendonca, George. 7 minors rescued, 4 booked in drive against child labour. The Times of India. March 5, 2017. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/navi-mumbai/7-minors-rescued-4-booked-in-drive-against-child-labour/articleshow/57470075.cms.
In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the State Government Labor Inspectorates that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including that the central government does not collect data on state government and territory funding and employment of labor inspectors.
17. Centre for Workers' Management. Brewing Misery: Condition of Working Families in Tea Plantations in West Bengal and Kerala. January 2015. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Brewing%20Misery%20-%20A%20report%20on%20tea%20plantations%20in%20WB.pdf.
28. Kara, Siddharth. Tainted Carpets: Slavery and Child Labor in India's Hand-Made Carpet Sector. Harvard School of Public Health. 2014. http://fxb.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2014/01/Tainted-Carpets-Released-01-28-14.pdf.
56. Albert ten Kate, et al,. Beauty and a Beast: Child Labour in India For Sparling Cars and Cosmetics. Amsterdam: SOMO. March 2016. https://www.somo.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Beauty-and-a-Beast.pdf.
78. The Times of India. 75 kids among 333 bonded labourers freed from brick kiln" . February 13, 2015. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/75kidsamong333bondedlabourersfreedfrombrickkiln/articleshow/46223058.cms.
42. Sharma, Maya. Not Paid, Locked, and Beaten; Factory Workers Rescued From Outskirts of Bengaluru. NDTV. June 3, 2015. http://www.ndtv.com/bangalore-news/not-paid-locked-and-beaten-factory-workers-rescued-from-outskirts-of-bengaluru-768150.
33. Sudhir, Uma. Why the Hyderabadi Bangle is a 'Circle of Shame' According to Activists. NDTV. February 17, 2015. http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/why-the-hyderabadi-bangle-is-a-circle-of-shame-according-to-activists-740158.
159. Bhalla, Nita. India turns to tech with online portal to end child labour. Reuters.com. September 26, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-children-labour/india-turns-to-tech-with-online-portal-to-end-child-labor-idUSKCN1C126Q.
Within India, children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and for forced labor in domestic service. (97; 95; 75) Children are also forced to work as bonded laborers in brick kilns and stone quarries to pay off family debts owed to moneylenders and employers. (2; 101) Children from India’s rural areas migrate or are trafficked for employment in industries, such as spinning mills and cottonseed production, in which they are forced to work in hazardous environments for little or no pay. (73; 25) In addition, armed Maoist groups reportedly recruited children to serve as soldiers in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, and West Bengal. (99; 75)